Environmental Law Australia

Carmichael Coal (“Adani”) Mine Cases in Queensland courts

This case study involves a major dispute in the Land Court of Queensland over the Carmichael Coal Mine (commonly known as the “Adani Mine”) proposed in the Galilee Basin of central Queensland and a subsequent judicial review challenge to the mine’s approval in the Supreme Court of Queensland.

Due to its enormous scale (as originally proposed) and its potential contribution to the climate crisis and ongoing collapse of ecosystems such as coral reefs, the campaign against it became the biggest environmental campaign seen in Australia since the Franklin campaign in the 1980s:

“It is talismanic. It’s the litmus test. Adani has become shorthand for ‘are you serious about climate change?’.” (Labor figure, May 2017)

After obtaining approval, the mine struggled to obtain finance from banks and other lenders, leading to speculation that Adani’s promise to self-fund the mine was:

“keeping the project on life support helps avoid a painful billion-dollar writedown; perhaps a sufficient level of taxpayer subsidy might be enough to salvage something from the wreckage.”

In the Land Court hearing considered in this case study, Adani’s own economic expert, Mr Jon Stanford, agreed the mine is “an extremely risky project” financially.

In addition to the enormous political campaign against the mine and its financial difficulties, it has faced multiple court cases. Some of those cases that have received heavy media coverage. Those cases are not the focus of this case study but are explained below to minimise confusion over the different cases against this mine and associated infrastructure.

Four cases in the Federal Court of Australia for judicial review of the Commonwealth Environment Minister’s decisions to approve the mine and associated water infrastructure are the subject of a separate case study.

Background to the mine

The Carmichael Coal Mine was proposed in 2010 by Adani Mining Pty Ltd, a subsidiary of the Adani Group from India operating as Adani Australia for its Australian projects (Adani). The group has a complex corporate structure involving:

“a labyrinth of trusts interposed between private companies and Indian stock market-listed companies with ties to, and in some cases ownership in, tax havens stretching from Singapore to Mauritius, on to the Cayman Islands and the British Virgin Islands.”

Professor van der Laan, a forensic accounting specialist who heads the discipline of finance at the University of Sydney, notes:

“The structure of Adani seems to be developed to obfuscate or confuse or to hide things … They would potentially be seeking to hide inter-company transfers, inter-company loans, transfer pricing of goods and services between related entities. … Adani Mining is in a very fragile, even perilous, financial position.”

The amount of coal Adani proposes to mine has changed substantially over time:

  • In 2010 Adani initially proposed to extract up to 60 million tonnes per annum of product coal for 150 years from an estimated coal resource of 8.3 billion tonnes.
  • By 2015 Adani had reduced the project lifetime to 60 years and estimated total production of 2.3 billion tonnes of thermal coal.
  • In 2018 Adani announced it would build a much smaller version – initially exporting 10 million tonnes a year, with annual production ramping up “over time” to 27 million tonnes; however, it still plans to eventually produce 55 million tonnes per year.

Adani’s proposal to produce 55 or 60 million tonnes of thermal coal per year makes the mine one of the largest coal mines in the world and the mining and burning of coal from it will generate an estimated 4.7 billion tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions. These emissions are over 0.5% of the remaining carbon budget to have a likely chance of limiting global temperature rises to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

Coal from the mine was originally proposed to be transported by a new 189km rail line to the Port of Abbot Point for export principally to India to be burnt for electricity production. Adani also originally proposed to expand the Port of Abbot Point to increase its capacity. The port expansion was the subject of other litigation that is not the focus of this case study.

Due a poor outlook for the project, lack of finance and to save money, in August 2018 Adani substantially slimmed down its proposed port expansion and, in September 2018, shifted to using the existing rail line (to, thereby, avoid the capital expense of constructing a major new rail line) for the initial stage of the project. The revised mine’s proposed output has been reduced to 10 million tons per annum (although the approvals granted for the mine do not limit its output to any level so the mine’s production can be increased). The capital investment has been reduced from $16.5 billion to $2 billion.

In addition to climate change, one of the major impacts of the mine is on groundwater. Moses 3 Lagoon, part of the Doongmabulla Springs Complex that lies outside the mining lease boundaries but which may be severely affected by the mine due to impacts on groundwater, is shown in the following aerial footage to illustrate the landscape in which the mine is proposed (Nb. “Doongmabulla” means “the place of many waters” in the language of the Traditional Owners of the area, the Wangan and Jagalingou People).

In Queensland, the major approvals required for large mines under State and Federal legislation were at the time the mine was first proposed by Adani in 2010:

A range of other approvals may be required depending on the nature and location of a mine and its associated infrastructure, such as a water licence to extract groundwater or surface water under the Water Act 2000 (Qld); however, changes to the Water Act on 10 November 2016 created a special exemption for the Carmichael Coal Mine to avoid it undergoing a further public objection process for its water licence.

The Queensland Coordinator-General declared the mine and rail project a “significant project” in 2010 (the term for this designation later changed to being a “coordinated project”) under the State Development and Public Works Organisation Act 1971 (Qld).  This legislation provides an environmental impact statement (EIS) process for large projects but does not actually approve the projects occuring. An EIS under it is fed-back into other approval processes such as under the MRA and EPA.

An EIS was prepared for the mine and rail project in 2011-2013 and the Coordinator-General issued a report in 2014 recommending the mine be approved.

Concurrently with the Queensland assessment of the mine, it was assessed under the EPBC Act using a bilateral agreement and subsequently approved by the Commonwealth Environment Minister in 2014. However, the Federal Court set aside this approval by consent on 4 August 2015. The Minister reconsidered the application and granted a second approval under the EPBC Act on 14 October 2015.

The applications for the mining lease and the environmental authority for the mine under Queensland law were the subject of an objections hearing in the Land Court of Queensland, considered in the next section.

Objections hearing in the Land Court of Queensland

Following the Coordinator-General’s report, the mine was publicly advertised for objections under the MRA and EPA.

A number of objections were received, including from a conservation group, Land Services of Coast and Country Inc (LSCC), which objected to the grant of the mining lease and the environmental authority on a number of grounds, including:

  • the impacts of the mine on groundwater and groundwater-dependent ecosystems, particularly the Doongmabulla Springs Complex and Mellaluka Springs Complex;
  • the impacts of the mine on biodiversity, particularly an endangered bird species, the Black-throated Finch (Poephila cincta);
  • the contribution that the burning of the coal from the mine will make to climate change, thereby contributing to environmental harm to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area due to climate change;
  • that the mine is not economically viable; and
  • that approval of the mine is contrary to the public interest.

The hearing of the evidence for the objections to the proposed mine under the MRA and EPA occurred in the Land Court of Queensland for five weeks, from 31 March – 1 May 2015. Closing submissions were delivered on Thursday 14 May 2015.

The Land Court delivered its decision on 15 December 2015. It recommended that the mining lease and environmental authority be granted subject to further conditions in relation to monitoring of impacts on Black-throated Finch.

Following the Land Court’s recommendation, the environmental authority for the mine was granted under the EPA on 2 February 2016.

The mining lease for the mine was granted under the MRA on 3 April 2016.

Judicial review of the environmental authority

LSCC applied on 26 April 2016 to the Supreme Court of Queensland for judicial review of the grant of the environmental authority under the EPA.

The application was originally based on an error of law or failure to consider a relevant consideration in the obligation in section 5 of the EPA to exercise a power or function under the Act in the way that best achieves the object of the Act, stated in section 3, of ecologically sustainable development.

While the obligation in s 5 of the EPA was not recognised in the statement of reasons for the decision to grant the environmental authority, in response to the application the delegate who made the decision affirmed an affidavit stating that she was aware of ss 3 and 5 at the time she made her decision.

In response to the affidavit LSCC sought leave to amend its application and proceeded on the basis that the delegate had erred in law in relation to the obligation imposed by s 5 of the EPA.

The amended application was heard in the Supreme Court (Bond J) at Brisbane on Friday 5 August 2015. The court dismissed the application on 25 October 2016.

Judicial review of the EPBC Act approvals for the mine

Separate litigation for judicial review (the subject of a separate case study) by the Mackay Conservation Group in the Federal Court in Sydney against the Commonwealth approval of the mine under the EPBC Act led to the approval being set aside on 4 August 2015 by consent (see the EDONSW website).

No judgment was delivered but the Court later issued a statement that the parties agreed the Commonwealth Environment Minister had failed to consider approved conservation advices for two listed threatened species,  the Yakka Skink and the Ornamental Snake, contrary to the requirements of section 139(2) of the EPBC Act.

Following the EPBC Act approval being set aside by the Federal Court, the Minister reconsidered the application for the mine and granted a second approval under the EPBC Act on 14 October 2015.

The second EPBC Act approval was also the subject of separate litigation for judicial review (again, the subject of a separate case study) by the Australian Conservation Foundation in the Federal Court in Brisbane.

That case commenced on 9 November 2015 and was heard in the Federal Court at Brisbane before Justice Griffiths on 3 and 4 May 2016. The Court dismissed the application.

The Full Federal Court dismissed ACF’s appeal from that decision on 25 August 2017.

ACF commenced a third judicial review challenge in the Federal Court on 4 December 2018, challenging the Minister’s consideration of the impacts of associated water infrastructure for the mine. The ACF website has a useful summary of that case. In June 2019 the Minister conceded an error had been made in making the decision and it was set aside by consent (i.e. ACF won).

ACF commenced a fourth judicial review application in 2020 against a decision by a delegate of the Minister that a proposed action comprising the North Galilee Water Scheme Infrastructure Project to supply water to the mine did not require assessment under the EPBC Act’s water trigger. On 25 May 2021 the Federal Court (Perry J), granted the application for judicial review, finding (at [11] and [114]) “an action will involve a large coal mining development for the purposes of the water trigger controlling provisions if the action is so closely associated with the mining of coal as to be integral to it.”

Other litigation against the mine involving native title

Several other disputes (also not the subject of this case study) about the mine involve native title issues raised by the Traditional Owners of the land on which the mine was proposed, the Wangan and Jagalingou People.

The first of these disputes involved hearings in  the National Native Title Tribunal (NNTT) and the Federal Court under the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth) (NTA) after the Wangan and Jagalingou People rejected an Indigenous Land Use Agreement (ILUA) proposed by Adani for the grant of the mining lease for the mine.

The Wangan and Jagalingou People applied in 2004 for recognition of their native title for an area northwest of Emerald in central Queensland. The northewestern part of the claimed area includes the land on which the mine is proposed. The NNTT has registered the Wangan and Jagalingou People’s native title claim but the application has not yet been decided. Registration of their native title claim gives the Wangan and Jagalingou People a right to negotiate in relation to government decisions that may affect their native title interests, such as the grant of a mining lease, under the future acts regime of the NTA.

When negotiations for an ILUA were unsuccessful, Adani applied to the NNTT for determination of a grant of a mining lease for the mine under the NTA. The Tribunal held in 2013 that it had jurisdiction to hear the application. It subsequently determined on 8 April 2015 that the mine could proceed under the future acts regime of the NTA. An elder of the Wangan and Jagalingou People, Adrian Burragubba, appealed this determination to the Federal Court but the application was dismissed. An appeal from that decision was dismissed by the Full Federal Court in August 2017.

A second dispute concerning native title issues involved an application by elders of the Wangan and Jagalingou People in the Supreme Court of Queensland for judicial review of the grant of the mining lease under the MRA based on native title grounds. That application was also dismissed. An appeal in the Queensland Court of Appeal was also dismissed in August 2017.

Further litigation regarding the ILUA was dismissed in August 2018.

Wangan and Jagalingou elder Adrian Burragubba speaks about the mine in the following film from a story about the dispute on The Guardian website.

Related litigation against expansion of Abbot Point

In addition to litigation against the Carmichael Coal Mine itself, a number of cases have been brought against expansion of the Abbot Point Coal Terminal to allow export of the large increase in coal production associated with the mine and other new mines in the Galilee Basin.

These associated proceedings have been brought in both the Adminstrative Appeals Tribunal (AAT) and the Federal Court for various issues associated with the dredging, dredge spoil disposal and expansion of the port.

The first of these cases, commenced in early 2014 by the North Queensland Conservation Council in the AAT, challenged a permit granted under the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 1975 (Cth) for dredge spoil disposal in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. The proponent later abandoned this proposal and the hearing before the AAT did not proceed. On 26 June 2015 the AAT ordered the cancellation of the permit with the consent of the parties.

A second case, commenced in mid-2014 by the Mackay Conservation Group, sought judicial review in the Federal Court of the EPBC Act approval for dredging and disposal of the dredge spoil in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and World Heritage Area. The proponent later abandoned the proposal to dispose of the dredge spoil in the Great Barrier Reef but the case has not yet been resolved.

A third case, commenced in early 2015 by the Alliance to Save Hinchinbrook conservation group, sought judicial review in the Federal Court of decisions under the EPBC Act to fast-track the assessment of a proposal to dispose of dredge spoil for the expansion of Abbot Point in the nearby Caley Valley Wetlands. The case is now over as the new Queensland Government officially withdrew its application under the EPBC Act for this proposal on 12 March 2015.

A fourth case, commenced in 2016 by the Whitsunday Residents Against Dumping conservation group challenged the lawfulness of the Queensland Government’s decision to approve an environmental authority under the EPA for Adani’s Abbot Point coal terminal expansion in the Queensland Supreme Court. The application was dismissed on 15 June 2017.

Due the poor outlook for the project, lack of finance and to save money, in August 2018 Adani substantially slimmed down its proposed port expansion.

Adani commenced clearing and removal of overburden for the mine in 2020. It reached part of the coal seams in June 2021.

Photographs of the mine pits at the end of 2022 are available at this link.

Related litigation about access to information

Another related piece of litigation in 2019 involved an application by ACF to the Office of the Information Commissioner (OIC) for access to an expert report about impacts of the mine on Black-throated Finch (BTF) commissioned by the Queensland Department of Environment and Science (DES).

ACF had applied for access to the report under the Right to Information Act 2009 (Qld) (RTI Act), but DES failed to decide the application within the timeframe stipulated by the RTI Act, and was therefore deemed to have refused access to the requested information.

ACF applied to the OIC for external review of DES’s deemed refusal of access.

Adani opposed ACF’s application on a number of grounds but the OIC rejected them.

On 4 December 2019 the OIC found that the report was not exempt information under the RTI Act, and nor would its disclosure, on balance, be contrary to the public interest. As such, there are no grounds under the RTI Act to refuse access to it (i.e. ACF won).

Lectures & seminars on the mine

The mine is presented as a case study for mining law in Queensland in the following lecture (commencing at 7:10 on the counter):

The following seminar on ‘Making sense of the Adani coal mine approval in the midst of coral bleaching’ was delivered for the Global Change Institute at the University of Queensland on 27 April 2016:

Richard Dennis, writing in The Monthly in May 2018, provided an interesting and insightful analysis of the politics and symbolism of the Adani mine that is well worth reading.

The next section provides key documents for the objection hearing in the Land Court and subsequent judicial review challenge to the grant of the environmental authority under the EPA in the Supreme Court.

Key documents

Mining application and EIS documents


Opening submissions

Maps of mine and photographs of areas affected by the mine

Expert evidence on groundwater

Expert evidence on springs ecology

Expert evidence on Black-throated finch (BTF)

Expert evidence on climate change

Expert evidence on energy markets and financial analysis

Expert evidence on economic assessment

Closing submissions

Land Court decisions

Queensland Government approvals for the mine

Judicial review challenge of EA

Supreme Court decision

Media reports about this case

Note: these articles cover various cases against the mine, not merely the Land Court hearing

Black-throated Finch: Down to the Wire, Birdlife Australia, December 2014.

Adani’s Carmichael coal mine loan in doubt, Brisbane Times, 14 March 2015.

Wangan and Jagalingou people reject $16 billion Carmichael mine to be build in central Queensland, ABC News, 26 March 2015.

Aboriginal group fights to stop $16bn Carmichael coalmine, Australia’s largest, The Guardian, 26 March 2015.

Traditional ownwers vs Carmichael Mine, ABC Lateline, 26 March 2015.

Queensland’s proposed Carmichael coalmine faces legal bid over climate change, The Guardian, 31 March 2015.

Finch could prove fatal for Qld mine, SBS/AAP, 31 March 2015.

Qld mine could hurt endangered finch, Sky News, 31 March 2015.

A Coal Load Of Problems: Community Group Drags Mining Giant Into Court, New Matilda, 31 March 2015.

Carmichael coal mine: Conservation group Coast and Country challenge mining giant Adani in Land Court, ABC News, 1 April 2015.

Adani mega-mine would damage environment: court, Brisbane Times, 7 April 2015.

French banks rule out funding Adani’s Galilee Basin coal mine, ABC News, 9 April 2015.

Adani, the new coal Tar BabyAustralian Financial Review Weekend, 10-11 April 2015.

Adani’s Carmichael coal mine a step closer, The Courier Mail, 16 April 2015.

Environmentalists scoff at Adani’s ‘benefits to community’The [Rockhampton] Morning Bulletin, 17 April 2015.

Adani boss says Carmichael megamine a test case for more large-scale Indian investment, The Courier Mail, 17 April 2015.

Black-throated Finch vs coalminers, Birdlife Australia, 20 April 2015.

Adani’s finances under the spotlight, The [Rockhampton] Morning Bulletin, 24 April 2015.

Adani coalmine would not deliver jobs and royalties promised, land court hears, The Guardian, 27 April 2015.

Whole lot of guff, ABC Media Watch, 27 April 2015.

Prospects for Australia’s biggest coal mine in doubt, Digital Journal, 27 April 2015.

Adani Mining feels heat over $14b Galilee Basin coal mine gap, Sydney Morning Herald, 28 April 2015.

Coal industry set for shake-out after prices halve, ABC News, 28 April 2015.

Adani’s economic outlook ‘makes no sense’, The [Rockhampton] Morning Bulletin, 29 April 2015.

Queensland’s miners will need a miracle to profit from coal now, The Guardian, 29 April 2015.

Expert says Carmichael mine losses would negate Adani’s need to pay tax, The Guardian, 1 May 2015.

Adani gilded lily is far from rolled gold, Sydney Morning Herald, 2 May 2015.

Adani’s Restructuring Turns Its Australian Coal Project Into Collateral Damage, IEEFA, 4 May 2015.

Adani denies executive admitted exaggerating mine job creation figures, The Guardian, 4 May 2015.

Adani to battle to finance mine: report, Business Spectator, 5 May 2015.

Adani’s Oz project unviable: Study, Business Standard, New Delhi, 5 May 2015.

Adani rejects claims restructure means it can’t pay for Queensland coal project, ABC News, 5 May 2015.

Standard Chartered faces pressure to cut links to Australian ‘carbon bomb’ project, The Guardian, 5 May 2015.

The Trial and Tribulations of Adani Mining: Four Of Their Shakiest ClaimsNew Matilda, 11 May 2015.

Court in ‘best position’ to decide on mine, say activists, Daily Mercury, 14 May 2015.

Adani’s Carmichael mine: damage far outweighs benefits, lawyer claims, The Guardian, 14 May 2015.

Adani’s ‘absolute failure’ revealed in court, Sunshine Coast Daily, 15 May 2015.

The new coal frontier: Galilee Basin, Australia, The Guardian, 17 May 2015.

Adani overestimated Carmichael coalmine benefits, Indigenous group says, The Guardian, 27 May 2015.

Comment: Climate must be a factor in assessing coal mine ‘benefits’, Brisbane Times, 30 May 2015.

Adani a dud candidate for government support, The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 June 2015.

Adani Mining: Senior Queensland bureaucrats frozen out of government’s Galilee Basin deal, ABC News, 1 July 2015.

Adani’s Carmichael Mine is unbankable says Queensland Treasury, The Sydney Morning Herald, 1 July 2015.

Greg Hunt urged to scrap Carmichael mine plan after new evidence of impact, The Guardian, 3 August 2015.

Adani caned but not canned, The Age, 5 August 2015.

Adani and Commonwealth Bank part ways, casting further doubt on Carmichael coal project, The Sydney Morning Herald, 5 August 2015.

Adani and government caught cutting corners on Carmichael mine, The Sydney Morning Herald, 5 August 2015.

Adani Carmichael mine: Commonwealth Bank walks away from financial adviser role for $16 billion coal mine project in central Queensland, ABC News, 5 August 2015.

Future of Carmichael mine hinges not on skinks or snakes, but its business case, The Guardian, 6 August 2015.

Adani’s Australian coal prospects in doubt, BBC, 9 August 2015.

Standard Chartered backs off Adani coal mining project, The Sydney Morning Herald, 11 August 2015.

UK bank and Adani cut ties on Qld mine, SBS World News, 11 August 2015.

The government vs the environment: lawfare in AustraliaThe Conversation, 18 August 2015.

Abbott is losing the plot in his war on environmentalists, The Sydney Morning Herald, 21 August 2015.

Clarke And Dawe – Episode 31, ABC, 27 August 2015.

Fact check: Will Adani’s coal mine really boost employment by 10,000 jobs? Climate Spectator, 31 August 2015.

Graph of the Day: Carmichael coal mine to take big chunk of carbon budget, RenewEconomy, 12 November 2015.

Carmichael vs The World, The Australia Institute, 12 November 2015.

Traditional owners appeal against native title process for Adani’s Carmichael mine, ABC News, 23 November 2015.

Adani ‘distorted’ jobs from Carmichael mine, The Australian Financial Review, 23 November 2015.

Miner engaged in ‘fraud’, says indigenous groupSydney Morning Herald, 23 November 2015.

Traditional land owner tells court Adani misled tribunal over mine’s benefits, The Guardian, 23 November 2015.

Queensland court agrees Adani overstated benefits of Carmichael coal mine, Brisbane Times, 15 December 2015.

Queensland court dismisses green group’s challenge to Adani coalmine, The Guardian, 15 December 2015.

There’s no precedent for stopping the Carmichael coal mine, but we should, The Conversation, 17 December 2015.

Queensland gives Adani environmental permit for Carmichael coalmine, The Guardian, 2 February 2016.

Adani’s Carmichael coal mine gains final Queensland Government environmental approval, ABC News, 2 February 2016.

Still some time before Adani mine approval consideration, Sydney Morning Herald, 3 February 2016.

Adani puts Galilee coal mine on hold pending recovery in coal price, RenewEconomy, 4 February 2016.

Stakes raised for black-throated finch’s largest remaining habitat on Adani mine site, The Guardian, 25 February 2016.

Coalmine approvals based on flawed models, The Saturday Paper, 27 February 2016.

Adani fails to force activists to pay $1m costs for Carmichael challenge, The Guardian, 23 March 2016.

Carmichael coal mine: Mining leases approved for $21 billion project in Queensland’s Galilee Basin, ABC News, 3 April 2016.

Adani’s Galilee Basin project mine leases approved, Sydney Morning Herald, 3 April 2016.

Adani’s Carmichael coalmine leases approved by Queensland, The Guardian, 3 April 2016.

Environmental groups slam Adani approvals as resources sector celebrates, Brisbane Times, 3 April 2016.

Decision on coal mine ‘defies reason’, Sydney Morning Herald, 4 April 2016.

Green and Indigenous groups furious over Queensland’s Carmichael coalmine lease approval, The Guardian, 4 April 2016.

Massive Carmichael coal mine in Queensland not viable, job claims overblown, economist says, ABC News, 4 April 2016.

Adani’s Carmichael mine approval labelled ‘economic stupidity’, The Guardian, 4 April 2016.

Adani’s Carmichael mine is just not going to happen, Sydney Morning Herald, 5 April 2016.

The Carmichael mine lease shows that decisions on coal need a much wider perspective, The Conversation, 7 April 2016.

Is this the end of the Great Barrier Reef? Sydney Morning Herald, 8 April 2016.

Coal v Coral: if Greg Hunt faces the truth he can save the Great Barrier Reef, The Guardian, 15 April 2016.

Great Barrier Reef: Federal, Queensland governments not listening to scientists, ‘Godfather of Coral’ says, ABC News, 18 April 2016.

Approval of Adani’s Queensland coalmine faces another legal challenge, The Guardian, 27 April 2016.

Carmichael coalmine appeal says Adani ‘misled’ Native Title Tribunal over benefits, The Guardian, 8 September 2016.

Adani’s Carmichael coalmine proves environment laws ‘too weak’ – report, The Guardian, 12 September 2016.

Tougher water test looms for Adani, The Australian, 14 September 2016.

Adani prepares for an end to lawfare with a smaller, cheaper Carmichael, Australian Financial Review, 21 September 2016.

Carmichael coal mine: politics, activism and the search for truth, The Guardian, 8 October 2016.

Adani must prove financial viability for Carmichael mine: Minister, Brisbane Times, 9 October 2016.

Carmichael mine to be given ‘essential’ status in sign of Palaszczuk support, The Guardian, 9 October 2016.

Adani coal mine gains ‘critical’ status as Queensland Government moves to kick-start project, ABC News, 10 October 2016.

The Coal Wars: a fact check, The Australia Institute, 27 October 2016.

Four environmental reasons why fast-tracking the Carmichael coal mine is a bad idea, The Conversation & ABC, 2 November 2016.

Queensland government gives Adani water exemption, The Sydney Morning Herald, 10 November 2016.

Adani’s Carmichael mine protected from legal challenges under Queensland water changes, The Guardian, 10 November 2016.

Mining companies’ new water licence requirements passed by Queensland Parliament, ABC News, 10 November 2016.

Sweatheart deal for Adani, Brisbane Times, 10 November 2016.

Adani Is The Canary In The Coal Mine For Our Groundwater, Huffington Post, 21 November 2016.

Environmental challenge to Carmichael coalmine dismissed by supreme court, The Guardian, 25 November 2016.

Adani coal mine: green groups fume over plan for $1b federal loan, The Guardian, 3 December 2016.

Adani’s Galilee Basin complex corporate web spreads to tax havens, ABC News, 21 December 2016.

Adani’s Carmichael mine in doubt after shock court decision, Townsville Bulletin, 3 February 2017.

Adani mine leases and national parks in doubt after native title court decision, The Guardian, 6 February 2017.

In the battle for the planet’s climate future, Australia’s Adani mine is the line in the sand, The Guardian, 27 March 2017.

Adani plans to export low quality, high ash coal to India, court told, ABC News, 3 April 2017.

Adani’s Carmichael coal mine is environmentally reckless and contrary to today’s energy markets, Sydney Morning Herald, 6 April 2017.

‘High and dry’: Adani seeks additional surface water to feed giant coal mine, Sydney Morning Herald, 6 April 2017.

Adani’s telling meltdown over Westpac’s new climate policy, RenewEconomy, 2 May 2017.

The future of Australian coal: an unbankable depositThe Conversation, 3 May 2017.

Risky Business: Health, Climate and Economic Risks of the Carmichael Coalmine, Climate Council, 18 May 2017.

The Damning Report That Says Adani’s Carmichael Mine Is A Slow Train To Ruin, Huffington Post, 18 May 2017.

Adani pressures Queensland government by putting investment decision on ice, Sydney Morning Herald, 22 May 2017.

Adani Carmichael mine’s rehabilitation financial assurance at least $1.5b, Lock the Gate says, ABC News, 24 May 2017.

Federal Labor feels the heat over Adani, and Coalition is sweating too, The Guardian, 27 May 2017.

Queensland says it won’t play any role in funding for Adani project, The Guardian, 27 May 2017.

Adani board pushes ahead with Queensland coal mine, chairman confirms, ABC News, 6 June 2017.

Adani announces ‘green light’ for Carmichael mega coal mine, Sydney Morning Herald, 6 June 2017.

Revealed: Gautam Adani’s coal play in the state facing global-warming hell, Sydney Morning Herald, 9 June 2017.

Galilee Basin mines will slash coal output, jobs elsewhere, Wood Mackenzie says, 6 July 2017.

Adani’s Carmichael coal mine has slow ‘official start’ planned, leaked document shows, ABC News, 10 July 2017.

Adani mine ‘spinning the roulette wheel’ on survival of black-throated finch, researchers say, ABC News, 14 July 2017.

Fresh legal challenge looms over Adani mine risk to endangered finch, The Guardian, 20 July 2017.

Coal in decline: Adani in question and Australia out of step, The Guardian, 25 August 2017.

Digging into Adani, ABC Four Corners, 2 October 2017.

Adani Australia: Investigation uncovers tax haven ties to British Virgin Islands, ABC News, 2 October 2017.

Adani needs Carmichael mine to stave off income crash, report says, The Guardian, 3 October 2017.

Why are we still pursuing the Adani Carmichael mine? The Conversation, 4 October 2017.

Jobs bonanza? The Adani project is more like a railway to nowhere, The Guardian, 18 October 2017.

Is this the end of the road for Adani’s Australian megamine?, The Guardian, 7 December 2017.

‘A national disgrace’: Australia’s extinction crisis is unfolding in plain sight, The Guardian, 13 February 2018.

Labor prepared to revoke Adani coalmine licence if elected, says Cousins, The Guardian, 27 February 2018.

Adani mine licence could be revoked under Labor government, Geoff Cousins says Bill Shorten told him, ABC News, 28 February 2018.

Revoking Adani mine licence a safe move for future Labor government, Shorten told, ABC News, 28 February 2018.

Legal advice reveals how Adani’s coal mine could be stopped, News.com.au, 28 February 2018.

Adani mine supporters now questioning whether project will go ahead, ABC News, 15 March 2018.

Why Adani won’t die, The Monthly, May 2018.

Adani plans to protect desert springs are worthless, water experts say, ABC News, 19 June 2018.

Indigenous group hid more than $2m in payments from Adani mining giant, The Guardian, 22 June 2018.

Adani environmental plans fail to address regulator demands designed to protect oasis, ABC News, 16 August 2018.

Adani lodges slimmed-down plan to expand Abbot Point coal terminal, The Guardian, 1 August 2018.

Adani groundwater bores investigated amid claims they were sunk without approval, ABC News, 12 September 2018.

State and federal investigation launched into Adani’s Carmichael water drilling, The Guardian, 12 September 2018.

Adani has made a big change to its Queensland rail plan, to save money, Brisbane Times, 13 September 2018.

Adani mine site to remain under native title until finance confirmed, Minister says, ABC News, 15 September 2018.

Adani plans to draw 12.5b litres of water and there will be no environmental impact statement, ABC News, 18 September 2018.

‘No direct impacts’ on reef: Minister defends Adani as activists target Labor, Sydney Morning Herald, 30 November 2018.

Carmichael mine: federal election, rail access and native title stand in the way, The Guardian, 1 December 2018.

Galilee Basin mine plans understated water impact, government report says, The Guardian, 15 December 2018.

Adani’s key water management plan is flawed and used some unverified data, CSIRO says, ABC News, 17 December 2018.

The legal clause [ISDS] which could allow Adani to sue Australia, The Guardian, 17 December 2018.

Adani ‘conservation area’ for endangered finch sits on proposed Clive Palmer mine, The Guardian, 30 December 2018.

Adani provided ‘persuasive’ evidence of ‘illegal’ water bores, environmental lawyers say, ABC News, 30 December 2018.

Adani: 2,000 hectares of black-throated finch habitat removed from conservation plans, The Guardian, 22 January 2019.

Adani mine: [federal] environmental laws designed to protect black-throated finch led to bird’s decline, The Guardian, 30 January 2019.

Queensland government rebukes Adani over endangered finch, The Guardian, 15 February 2019.

Scientists unite against Adani attack on report into endangered finch, The Guardian, 16 February 2019.

News Corp attacks scientists assessing Adani coalmine – and ignores science, The Guardian, 16 February 2019.

Adani’s new law firm put forward ‘trained attack dog’ strategy for waging legal ‘war’, ABC News, 19 February 2019.

Adani’s ‘legal intimidation’ tactics against community groups a ‘threat to democracy’, The Guardian, 19 February 2019.

‘An absolute mess’ Adani coalmine approval could take two years, Queensland official says, The Guardian, 21 February 2019.

How to send a finch extinct, Environmental Science & Policy, April 2019.

Labor warns government not to make Adani coalmine decisions before election, The Guardian, 5 April 2019.

How last-minute Adani approval could be the final big call of the Morrison Government, ABC News, 8 April 2019.

Adani coalmine: Morrison and Frydenberg play down remaining approvals, The Guardian, 8 April 2019.

Adani still has a long march ahead before its Carmichael coal mine opens, Sydney Morning Herald, 10 April 2019.

Inside Melissa Price’s decision to approve Adani’s groundwater plan, ABC News, 11 April 2019.

Adani: Labor accuses Coalition of using election to duck coalmine questions, The Guardian, 11 April 2019.

Adani’s Carmichael coalmine: what happens next?, The Guardian, 11 April 2019.

Adani did not ‘accept in full’ changes sought by scientists during approval stages, meeting notes show, ABC News, 18 April 2019.

Briefing notes show Coalition approved Adani water plan despite knowing of risk, The Guardian, 18 April 2019.

Adani coal mine poses ‘alarming’ risk to sacred wetlands, traditional owners say, ABC News, 1 May 2019.

Unpacking the flaws in Adani’s water management plan, The Conversation, 1 May 2019.

Adani mine delay after management plan for black-throated finch rejected, ABC News, 3 May 2019.

Adani’s Carmichael mine and the small endangered bird that is proving a big problem, ABC News, 3 May 2019.

Queensland delays Adani mine indefinitely, citing fears for endangered finch, The Guardian, 3 May 2019.

Adani’s Carmichael mine is unlikely to go ahead, and most people know it, The Guardian, 3 May 2019.

Adani water plan ticked off within hours despite lack of detail, internal CSIRO emails reveal, ABC News, 14 May 2019.

Qld Govt, Adani, tripping over themselves to approve Carmichael coal mine, RenewEconomy, 22 May 2019.

Adani delays lead Annastacia Palaszczuk to ask Coordinator-General to intervene, ABC News, 22 May 2019.

Mega mine next to Adani [China Stone] quietly put on hold, thousands of promised jobs in doubt, ABC News, 23 May 2019.

What’s next for the coal mine that helped to return Morrison to power?, Sydney Morning Herald, 22 May 2019.

Adani’s final environmental hurdles set to be finalised within three weeks, Premier announces, ABC News, 24 May 2019.

The numbers on Adani simply don’t add up, Bloomberg and Sydney Morning Herald, 24 May 2019.

Adani needs one more environmental approval after sign off on black throated finch plan, ABC News, 31 May 2019.

Queensland signs off Adani’s plan for endangered black-throated finch, The Guardian, 31 May 2019.

Adani mine gets final environmental approval for Carmichael mine, ABC News, 13 June 2019.

Adani’s mine has the green light but questions remain about its viability, ABC News, 13 June 2019.

Adani cleared to start Carmichael coalmine work as groundwater plans approved, The Guardian, 13 June 2019.

Adani is cleared to start digging its coal mine – six key questions answered, The Conversation, 14 June 2019.

Adani’s Carmichael coal mine surviving on lifeline from Indian parent company, ABC News, 24 July 2019.

Queensland ordered to release secret report on black-throated finch conservation, The Guardian, 7 December 2019.

Adani agrees to plead guilty for giving ‘false or misleading documents to an administering authority’, ABC News, 6 February 2020.

‘Still don’t know’: Adani nod ignored science, paper finds, Brisbane Times, 12 May 2020.

Australia listened to the science on coronavirus. Imagine if we did the same for coal miningThe Conversation, 12 May 2020.

Science sidelined in approval of Australia’s largest coal mine, Nature Sustainability, 12 May 2020.

Documents suggest Adani retained long-term plan to build Australia’s biggest mine, The Guardian, 11 November 2020.

Australian Conservation Foundation wins Federal Court challenge against Adani and Environment Minister, ABC News, 25 May 2021.

Federal court overturns water approval for Adani’s Carmichael coalmine, The Guardian, 25 May 2021.

Adani – now Bravus – strikes first coal seam at Carmichael mine in Galilee Basin, The Guardian, 26 June 2021.

Adani adopts strategy of obscuring details of Carmichael coalmine water plan, The Guardian, 25 June 2021.

Drop in aquifer levels near Adani mine sparks concern for sacred wetlands, The Guardian, 8 July 2021.

Environmentalist Ben Pennings fears Adani legal bill could bankrupt him [after Adani claimed a single day in court cost them $800,000], ABC News, 21 September 2021.

Adani is poised to ship its first coal – is this failure for Australia’s defining climate campaign, The Guaridan, 18 December 2021.

After Adani: whatever happened to Queensland’s Galilee basin coal boom, The Guardian, 9 January 2022.

Conservationists accuse Adani of ‘sidelining’ experts on endangered black-throated finch, The Guardian, 5 March 2022.

The end of Adani? Investment giant says coal miner has revealed Carmichael closure plan, In Queensland, 13 May 2022.

Inside a camp in remote Australia where music, tradition and ceremony are persisting against an unlikely backdrop: Adani’s Carmichael Mine, ABC News, 7 December 2022.

Adani’s Carmichael coal mine is not alleviating energy poverty in Asia, it’s making it worseRenewEconomy, 22 December 2022.

Adani’s Australian arm Bravus issued with Environment Protection Order over future underground works at Carmichael mine, ABC News, 4 March 2023.

Traditional owners claim Queensland government breaching human rights over potential Adani contamination, ABC News, 17 February 2024.

Adani mine could be ‘causing environmental harm’ at protected springs, say Queensland government officials in court case, ABC News, 2 May 2024.

Adani’s Queensland coalmine a threat to important wetland, Indigenous groups and scientists say, The Guardian, 14 July 2024.

Carmichael coalmine compilation of stories from The Guardian.